This is a transcript of an original diary that has been handed down in my family for many generations. It may not be someone from my family who wrote it. So far all of my family traces back to the New England states and New York.
It’s a record of his day to day activities leading up to the Battle of Yorktown where the British surrendered and continues to the next 4th of July.
It wasn’t signed and he never mentions his name, so we don’t know who the author is. From the clues he’s given, I’ve determined that he was in the Third Pennsylvania. The biggest clue is the entry on Nov 22, 1781 that says “Myself appointed Comry to the Penna. Troops.”
May 26th 1781. Marched at 10 o’clock by the right thro York Town towards Hannover 12 Miles Encamped the roads Excessive bad occasioned by heavy rains.
27th Marched early this morning thro Mc Allisters Town the roads continue very muddy and Encamped near [?] Littles Town 15 Miles many of our men Suddenly Taken sick Occasioned chiefly by Excess of Drinking previous to our marching.
28th Marched this day thro P. Littles Town & Tawny Town Encamped on Great Pike Creek in Maryland 16 miles this day very warm many of our men Taking with the Fits, Occasioned by Excess of Drinking.
29th Marched 3 o’clock A M Crosed Little [?] Creek on the Banks of Manockesy River 12 Miles got Plenty of Beer for the officers of the Regt.
30th Lay by this day and Orders were Issued for the men to-wash their cloathes Burnish up their arms & be in readiness for review at 6 o’clock we were Reviewed Accordingly A number of Spectators both Male & Female were present Amongst the number Governor Johnson and his Lady in the Evening a number of the officers with myself Took a ride to Frederick Town Distant 5 miles in our return being in a merry humour Misser our road, rode 14 Miles Insted of 5 —-
31st March this day thro Frederik Town to Nowlands Ferry on the Potomack River 18 Miles Crosed the River & Encamped about two miles up sd. river the Night very rainy no shalter for the men the Officers Lodged in a house Built to Cure Tobacco in we sent to the Ferry and got some Whiskey and Enjoy’d our selves as well as possible in Crosing the River a boat unfortunately sunk a Waggon of Ammunition Damaged a Sergeant and three men Drownld: and Two horses. Frederick Town is a Pretty Situation containing about 300 houses.
[There appears to be several missing pages. The next page now present starts in the middle of an entry, as follows:]
… were at Dinner but the March Occasioned them to hasten their repast Encamped in a Field altho the Baggage did not arrive until midnight Roads very bad we March this piece [?] of a day 12 Miles.
June 6th March at day light thro German Town and Encamped at Elk Run Church 12 Miles this Night we had a very severe rain one of the worst so I ever Experienced the water being half legg Deep. Genl. Wayne the Next Morning Stiled it the Deluge.
[In margin:] Fairfax County.
June 7th lay by this day to dry our Clothes Tents &c and Replace the Damaged Ammunition.
June 8th March at day light to the Dutch Coopers having Crosed the North Branch of Rappahanack which Took us to the Middle we Crosed at Normonds Ford The distance we march this day 21 Miles this place is the first and most Christian like place we have yet seen in the Much Farned State of Virginia this place in Genl. Especially what I have yet seen of it is famous for Nothing but Negros and Indian Corn the soil being in Genl. very poor and the Timber chiefly Pine.
June 9th March at 4 o’clock crosed the South branch of Rappahanack Calld Rapedon [?] at Rackoon Ford 14 Miles and Encamped.
June 10th March at 5 o’clock Crosed Brooks Bridge where we had the pleasure to see the Marquis Delafayette Proceeded to Mr. McDonalds an Obscure place in the pines 23 Miles and Enca[m]ped.
June 11th Marched at 5 o’clock and Encamped at Col. Basticks Ordinary on South Anna Creek where we formed a Junction with the Troops under the Command of the Marquis Delafayette 8 Miles We were inform’d that the Enemy’s horse had been here the Night before.
June 12th Marched this day to Ma[?]k Creek on the Border of Flavianna County 11 Miles. here we Curtailed our Baggage a second time and sent [2 words] to Charlotte Vill.
June13 no movement this day.
[Entries for June 14 and 15 inverted]
June 15th March to York Creek 14 Miles the Country as usual very poor & Piney [?] omitted
June 14 Marched at 4 o’clock to Watsons Ordinary 13 Miles our Tents behind with the Baggage.
16th June Marched at 4 o’clock AM to deep Creek near Pamonkey River 9 Miles.
June 17th Marched at 3 o’clock AM to Dandridges Farms 18 Miles here we Encamped the Tents Baggage &c arrive from Charlotte Vill.
June 18th Marched at Dark leaving all our Baggage and Tents behind with an Intention of Surprising a Body of the Enemy. Horse which was said to be at Norrises Ordinary when we Arrived at day Break after Marching the Whole Night but found they had left there the Evening before we refreshed ourselves as well as the place woud admit off [i. e., of] the Water being scarce & bad we then Marched Back to Nichols Field and lay all night in air 19 Miles.
19th June Marched at 5 o’clock to Col. Sims Mills 2 Miles and Encamped in Brush Hutts here a spy was tryed by a Genl Courtmartial and sentenced to suffer Death but made his Escape before the time of Execution.
June 21st Marched to Norrisses Ordinary and lay in the fields this Night 11 Miles myself being sent after the Baggage which was sent to Deep Creek rode all that night arrivd there about sunrise.
June 22nd Marched at 2 o’clock AM and Encamped three Miles below Richmond at Getts Farms 22 Miles Richmond is situated under a Hill Convenient for Trade but by no means Elegant the Town appears to me much Destroyed by the Enemy & the Negros lying down in numbers with the small pox A Number of these Miserable beings were found in the field where the Enemy had Encamped bad with this Disorder some dead others Expiring for want of something to Exist on some were scarcely dead before they were Burnt by the Inhabitants to stop the Contagion from Spreading Miserable indeed is the Situation of those poor slaves.
June 23d Marched at 2 Oclock AM over Bottoms Bridge and Halted Oldney’s Ordinary miles to Refresh our selves a report came that the Enemy were close at hand. Genl. Mulenburgh [sic] who Commanded the Advanced Corps sent his Waggons with such precipitation and his Troops followed immediately after which Induced us to believe the Enemy were very near we formed in order of Battle and sent of [sic] our Baggage likewise but not finding the Enemy advanced we Changed our position to another road to the left of where we were Immagined the Enemy would come we lay on our arms untill Evening and found the Alarm to be false and Groundless we then Marched into Mr. Savadges Fields and lay that Night in all 20 Miles we were Joined this day by the Baron Steuben with Battn. of 18 Months men and Virginia Militia.
24th June The General Beat at day Break, but the Tents Pitched Immediately after A Soldier of the 4th Regt. was shot this day for Desertion we took up the line of march at Dark and Halted at 3 O’clock AM 12 Miles.
25th Marched at Sun rise to New Kent Courthouse from thence to Genl. Mulenburgs Camp 14 Miles.
26th June Marched at I Oclock AM Toward Coopers Mills or Chickahomany Church in Order to Intercept Col. Simcoe’s Legion who were expected this way the Pennsa Line a Party of Virginia Rifle Men at the Burnt Ordinary Col. Butler with the Riflemen with a Small Detachment of musquetry took the left Genl. Wayne the right which unfortunately happened to be a Circuitous Route and by the time we arrived at Chickahomany Church Simcoe had pased &c Col Butler had pursued & came up with them at a large Cornfield a Skermish Ensued Genl. Wayne was about to Reinforce but orders came from the Marquis to Draw off the Troops as he did not intend the Troops shoud have gone so far. I was apprehensive the Whole British Army would come in pursuit of us which we found afterwards to be the case our loss in the Action was two Officers & ten men kiled and wounded and 6 or 8 Dragoons Prisoners as Majr. McPherson Charged the Enemy with about 3O [or5O?] horse & Broke them. The Enemys loss by their own account was two Officers & upwards of sixty men we then Marched Back to the Burnt Ordinary & drew a little peach Liquor but no provisions. The day the hotest I ever felt we then Marched Rapidly in the heat of the day to Birds Ordinairy about four Miles many men falling back then we halted till the night & marched back to our Old Ground in all 24 Miles as Capt Fenney[?] Justly observed that upwards of 50 good men were [word omitted — perhaps sacrificed] for the sake of a few Individuals.
27 & 28 No movement & nothing material happened.
29th Marched at 2 Oclock AM in Search of a party of the Enemy which was said to be in the Neighborhood of Camp took a Circuitous route by Birds & Burns Ordinarys and Encamped on the Widow Gordons Plantation 20 Miles in all this day Exeeding hot.
30 & 31 Nothing Remarkable except Capt. Wilkin[s] Taken sick and the Weather hot as Hell.
July 1st Marched at 3 Oclock AM to Pamonkey River for the purpose of Bathing and washing Doctor Downey of our Regt. was unfortunately Drowned & two soldiers 13 Miles in all.
July 2nd Marched at 2 Oclock AM to Hickory Neck Church and lay until 4 Oclock PM and then marched back to Widdow Gordons & Encamped on our Old Ground 14 miles.
July 3d Marched at 9 Oclock AM to Balls Farms and Encamped 4 Miles.
July 4th this day being the Aniversary of our Independence it was Celebrated with 13 Cannon from the park[?] & three Genl. Discharges of Musquetry from the whole Army.
July 5th Marched at 7 Oclock AM and Encampld two miles Above Hickory Neck Church at Dark marched to Chickahomany Church leaving all our Tents and Baggage behind & lay on our Arms until Morning 12 Miles.
July 6th Marchld to a large plain or Corn Field where Col. Butler had the Skermish 4 Miles from James Town where we halted but had nothing to Eat Col. Stewarts Regt. was sent to Reconnoiter the Enemy the other two Pennsylvania Battns. marched Back two Miles in the Mean time the Advance had driven the Enemy Piquetsz [i.e., pickets] as fat as the Green Springs Orders Came for us to March Immediately we made a forcld march to Green Spring halted about 5 Minutes got water then march Cross a Defile and formed a Column and Displayed on the right of the whole 100 yards from the Enemy we Advanced in front some Distance the Enemy Commenced the fire which was Immediately return’d with vigour but on Account of their Great Superiority in numbers they Gained Our Flanks which Obliged us to Retire. our loss was Idled twenty four Noncommissioned Officers & Privates Wounded Eleven Officers Ninty Six Commissioned Officers and Privates two six Pounders fell into the hands of the Enemy owing to our having no horses we marched Back to Chickahomany Church Much fatigued in all 24 Miles.
7th No movements this day the men coming in who were left behind Fatiguedi Tarltons horse
10 July Marched at 2 Oclock AM Crosed a Branch of Chickahomany River the Bridge in part Destroyed by the Enemy our Baggage sent 10 Miles round Encamped at Holts Forge 14 Miles.
11th No Movements.
12th July No movements the Incorporation of our line in Adjutation. 14th* Marched at 6 Oclock AM to Four Mile Creek Tents wet 14 Miles. 13th Marched at 3 O’clock AM to Oldneys Ordinary & Encamped 9 Miles.
Saturday 15th July 81 This dat the Incorporation of our line took place the retiring Officers Determined by lott.
16 July began to Cross James River at 7 Oclock AM all the Troops Crosed & marched at 3 Oclock PM to Ware Church 7 Miles & Encamped.
17th July Marched at 4 Oclock PM to Chikhams [?] Fields 11 Miles and Encamped on the March Crosed Swift Creek.
18th July Marchld at 4 Oclock PM to Chesterfield Courthouse 8 Miles and Encamped.
19 July Marched at 5 Oclock AM to goods Bridge on Appematick [sic]River & Encamped good water Distant 10 Miles.
20th July No movements Orders for the men to wash, and Clean their arms.
21st No movements this day.
22. Rainy this afternoon.
23. a soldier of the 1st Regt. Hanged this day for miroading [sic] Still rainy Nothing remarkable to the 30th Except a Grand horse race and Goods Bridge falling some soldiers on it but none of the [m] kiled.
30th Marched at 5 Oclock AM Crosed the Apamatick at Goods Bridge Encamped at Watsons Mills on the sd [i.e., said] river 8 Miles.
31st July no movement Orders for marching the next morning.
1st August Orders Countermanded but Ordered to March the next morning.
2nd Marched at 5 Oclock AM to Da[?] Ordinary 14 Miles and Encamped went by the Invitation of Mr Munford[?] to Col. B[?] to Dine after dinner the ladies came to camp and Drank tea some of our officers waited on them home, my self being ordered
*Changed from 13th advanced this on Command.
3d Marched at 5 Oclock AM Crossed the Appamatick and Continued our March to Deep Creek Church 21 miles the Hotest day I ever felt a Number of the men fell on the road with the Excess of the heat and the Rapidity of the march.
4th Augt. Marched at 5 Oclock AM to James River oposite Westham and Encamped 8 Miles.
5th August Parade at sun rise and began to Cross the River we Crossed and Encamped one mile from the River.
6th August no movements this day the hotest of any yet a soldier of the 4th Regt. Buried who died a natural Death.
7th no Movements myself being, Ordered on Command to the Manakin Town landing on James River from thence to Col. Harrises in all 18 Miles where I had an Invitation to stay that Night but coud not Except of it as the Troops was to march the next morning Arrived at Camp at 1 O’clock AM.
8th Augt. Marched at 2 Oclock AM Pased thro Richmond & Encamped at Gills Farms 10 Miles.
9th Augt Marched at 2 Oclock to Bottoms Bridge and Encamped on Savadges Farms near Oldneys Ordinary 14 Miles.
10th No Movements this day.
11th no Movements this day.
12th this day A soldier of the Virginia Line was Executed for attempting the life of one of his officers.
13 No movement the weather very wet myself being again sent to Manaldn Town landing and Col. Harrisses for flour for the Troops of our Brigade.
14th Return’d off from command and after a Fatiguing ride marched to New Castel 12 Miles.
15 & 16 Nothing material happened.
18, 19 & 20 lay still.
21 Augt. no movements still.
22nd no movements still.
23 Thursday Marched at 8 Oclock PM to Savadges Farms 12 Miles and Encamped the afternoon Rainy. Morning
Friday 24th Augt. Marched at 4 Oclock in the morning Crosed Bottoms Bridge Whitoack Swamp and Encamped at Westover Alias Col. Birds Country seat situate on the Bank of James River in the Improvements are Displayed a great share of Real Elegance Marched this day 22 Miles.
Saturday 25 no movements this day.
Sunday 26th no movements news arrived that the Enemy had Evacuated Portsmouth left a large Number of Negros &c &c which they coud not take for want of vessells.
Monday 2 7th Augt. no Movements this day.
Tuesday 28th Do. Marched at 8 Oclock AM to Mobine hills 9 Miles and Encamped.
Wednesday 29th Augt. Marched at 2 Oclock AM to Westover again an [d] Encamped & began to cross the River that Evening.
Tuesday [sic] 30th Augt. The remainder of the Troops and Baggage except the Virginia Battn. Crosed this day.
Friday 31st Augt. the Virginia Battn. and the Brigade waggons Crosed and we took up our line of march at 3 Oclock PM Encampld at Cabin Point 22 [or 12?] Miles.
Saturday Sept. 1st Heard the agreeable News of the arrival of Count de Grasses Fleet Consisting of 28 sail of the line with 5000 Land Forces on Bord under the Command of Majr Genl. De St. Simon.
Sunday 2nd Septr Marched at Daylight to Cobhams Ferry and Encamped 5 Miles this place is situated on the Bank of James River where we had the pleasure of seeing two French Frigates and a Number of Boats with 3000 Troops on Bord which they Landed at James Town oposit to where we lay and Encamped.
Monday 3 Septr Marched at 6 Oclock in the morning began to Cross the River in the French Boats which Transported us all over in one Trip and halted on the Mainland near the place where we had the action the 6th July the Ensuing Evening Genl. Wayne was Unfortunatly wounded by a Centinel of the Infantry by mistake. Marched this Evening to Green Springs through a very Severe rain being Destitute of Tents or Baggage lay on the wett Ground all Night.
Tuesday 4th Sept. Marched at day light joined the Marquises Infantry & halted at Williamsburgh & saluted the Marquis and the Marquis De St. Simon lodged in the Academy in Williamsburgh that Night no provisions.
Wednesday 5th Sepr. Marched to Wilkersons Mills I Mile from Williamsburgh where we got one days beef no bread or salt.
Thursday 6th Sepr. Marched at 8 Oclock in the Morning thro Williamsburgh to Bunells Mills and Relieved the Infantry.
Friday 7th septr. A party of the Enemys Horse came out and fell in with Capt. Hinds [?] horse which retired into our Camp the Advance Piquet gave them a fire which Caused them to Retire leaving A sword Pistle and Cloak on the Ground but Neither horse or man.
Saturday 8th Countermarchtd at 8 Oclock in the Morning passed thro Williamburgh and Encamped the Infantry on our Right and the French Troops on our left the Right Wing under the Command of Genl. Wayne the left wing or French Troops under the Marquis De St. Simon the Advance under the Command of Genl Muhlenburgh the Militia and the Reserve under Genl Stevenson the French Troops in Genl. young men but old in service.
Sunday 9th Sepr. Reviewed by the Marquis Majr. Genl. De St. Simon & a number of the Principal officers of ft French Army the Marquis Introduced all the officers of the Infantry and Pennsa. Line to Genl. De. St. Simon the Weather very dry and the Ground on which we are Encamped the most Horrid Dusty of any place I Ever saw.
Monday 10th no movement the Weather still Continues dry.
Tuesday l1th the Weather still Continues dry the dust increases.
Wednesday 12th The dry weather still Continues Intelligence arrives that His Excellency Genl Washington was Coming on with 8000 Troops to Join us about 12 Oclock at Night we were favored with a very fine Rain but heavy thunder which has made our present Situation more agreeable by sufficiently laying the dust.
Thursday 13th This day Cloudy and Coole a prospect of more rain.
Friday 14th Sepr. About 6 Oclock this afternoon we were agreeably Alarmed with Intelligence that His Excellency Genl. Washington being within one mile of our Camp the Troops Immediately Paraded & with inexpressible Joy Turned and Saluted that Great good Genl. he was Attended with a very Respectable Body of Gentleman [sic] Genl. Hand a number of the First Characters the Joy that Appeared in Every persons Face requires an abler pen than mine to Describe at his Arrival in Camp 21 Cannon was Fired being the Grand salute.
Saturday 15th Sepr 1781 About 2 Oclock AM it began to rain very heavey and Continues all day.
Sunday 16 Cloudy a small rain Yesterday Evening the News Arrived of the arrival of the Rhod Island Fleet Consisting of Nine Sail of the line near the mouth of Chesepeek Bay they Took two British Frigates on their Passage mounting 32 Guns Each Count De Grass Fleet close at hand. We hope shortly to begin to Invest York we are this day to Wait on his Excellency Genl Washington to welcom him to our Camp by the Request of the Marquis thru the Commanding officer of the Brigade.
Monday 17th Sepr. Some showers and very Warm no movements.
Tuesday 18th High winds and Coole this Morning.
Wednesday 19 Yesterday the Troops from Rhod Island Arrived in Williamsburgh.
Thursday 20th Windy Coole no movement & all Ouiet towards Night very Cold for the season in the Night came a very heavy rain Together with with [sic] high Winds which made our Camp Lodging very Disagreeable.
Friday 21st Fair Cool & Windy this day the Baron Introduced some new Manuvers on Parade such as to be Used in a seige.
22d Fair and warm.
Sunday 23d Fair and Warm this day all the Officers of the Lt. Infantry and the officers of the Pennsa Line was Introduced to Count Roshambo [sic] Lt. Genl. in the French Army and Commander in Chief of the French Troops.
Monday 24th Fair and Plesent took a ride to see Mr. Hovenden [?] who was at sick Quarters & very Ill.
Sepr. 25th Fair and Plesent this day no movement.
Wednesday 26th Sepr. Fair and Plesent the 2nd Division French Troops were landed at James Town Marched to Williamsburgh and Encamped.
Thursday 27 Marched this day one mile below Williamburgh and Took post with the Main Army which had assembled and Encamped on that Ground.
Friday 28th This day the Whole Army French American & Militia at 5 Oclock AM for the Enemy lines we Encamped about sun set within two miles of their works some Cannon Shot was Exchanged between the French troops & the Enemy His Excellency Genl. Washington R [?] d the Enemy within one mile of their works marched this day 12 Miles.
29th Marched this morning and Took Post within Cannon Shot of the Enemys Lines a Number of Cannon was Fired from the Enemies Fortifications During the Course of the day with little damage some Bridges were built over a Morass between us and the Enemys Lines.
30th This morning about 8 Oclock this morning [sic] we Discovered the Enemy had Evacuated their out works as, soon as it was Discovered the French Marched and Took possession of the Works next them Our Troops Likewise advanced and Took posession of the Works belong to our Department The French Troops Advanced on the Enemys Right and Took possession of Radout Taking some prisoners this Night we broke ground no Firing Except the Patroles this Morning Col. Scammel was Wounded and Taken Prisoner.
Monday Octr. 81 This morning two Redoubts being Nearly Finished and the Enemy Perceiving our men at Work Commenced firing From their Works near the Town which has Continued with Very small Intermissions on both Redoubts and Working Parties During the course of the day with but Little Damage only two Soldiers kiled one of which was Militia.
Tuesday 2nd Octr. The Firing Still Continues with Very Little damage one of the Maryland Soldiers Deserted to the Enemy.
Wednesday 3d The Firing Ceased a little three men Idled with a cannon shot we are still at Work at the redoubts two French and one American soldier Deserted to the Enemy which is very Extraordinary at this Critical Juncture a, Number of heavy Cannon some Howitts [i. e. , howitzers] and Mortars arrived.
Thursday 4th Octr. Very little firing untill Evening when a Cannonnade Commenced which lasted all Night some of our a/d/vance Parties went very near the Works some fired into them we had one American soldier Idled.
Friday 5th October The Enemy fired but a few shot this day the [?] of a skermish between C[?] D[?] & Tarleton Arrived our loss was 3 Huzzars Idled three officers and and [sic] Eleven men wounded the Enemys loss was upwards of fifty Idled and Wounded —- we had 3 horses Idled and four wounded the Cannonade heavy all night.
Saturday 6th Col. Scammell made his Exit this day the Amount of the Action at E[?] Spring came out in orders and are as follows Prisoners taken Excluding the wounded 500 their loss beside 600 hundred [sic] our loss 500 Idled and wounded the firing from the Bateries as usial.
7th October A Fatigue Party of 4000 men from the left & wright Wing to break new ground a heavy Cannonnade from the Enemies works all the night.
8th October The Cannonnade from the Batteries still Continued one man of our line kiled Our Batteries Near finished.
9th October The Whole army Ordered on Fatigue, the firing Continued as Usial our Bateries not opened yet. about sun set our Batteries opened and a heavy Cannonnade Ensued.
10th A heavy Cannonnade continued without Intermission the Enemy more Quiet than Usial we having Silenced all their Cannon but one which was in a Redoubt on their right.
Thursday l1th The Cannonade Continued from our Batteries the whole day and night. we also threw a large number of Shells very large in the night broke new Ground within 2 or 3 hundred yards of the Enemy with little loss.
Friday 12th October 81 The Cannonade Still Continues the Enemy threw a number of Shells but did little damage — our Batteries return’d a number, I believe three to their one.
Saturday 13th Octr. 81 The Cannonade Continues as Usial.
Sunday 14th The Cannonade still continues rather heavy than Usial untill Dusk when our Batteries Ceased firing The Infantry and French Grenadiers were Ordered to Storm two of the Enemies Advanced Batteries which they did with a great deal of Bravery thro a heavy fire of Cannon & Musquetry and Carried them with the loss of about 100 kiled and wounded, the Enemies loss kiled and wounded was [no figure given].
Monday 15th The Enemy threw a large Number of small Shells which did Considerable damage. we having very few Cannon that Could bare on them owing to the two Redoubts being in our possession which was the Object ours was Built for, put it out of our power to Silence them in the night the Enemy Sallied out upon the French Troops Spiked six or Seven Cannon kiled and wounded three men, but was repulsed with the loss of sixteen kiled munded and taken.
Tuesday 16th The Cannonade as Usial.
Wednesday 17th The Cannonade very heavy from our Batteries at 4 Oclock AM His Lordship sent a Flag of Truce to his Excellency requesting that he would appoint two officers of his Army to meet two of his to Settle the Capitulation of his Army also requested 24 Hours Sessation of Arms but got only two Granted before that was Expired another Flag arrived the Sessation Continued all night.
Thursday 18th Flags Continue between Each Party the whole day the Articles of Capitulation not yet signed we had Eighty Pieces of Ordinace [sic] very heavy ready to fire at them in Case we should not agree.
Friday 19th This morning the Capitulation was signed in the afternoon we Formed in two lines the Enemy marched betwen then untill they had passd the Army they then Grounded their arms where there was a Guard to take Care of them a number of their men Drunk after they had Grounded their Arms they Counter Marched into York where they Continue all night one of our men kiled who was on Guard in the Town but not known by who the Articles of Capitulation are as follows
[here follow two and one half blank pages]
Saturday 20th The prisoners still Continue in York I shall give an Account hereafter of the Prisoners Stores &c which were in York Town & in Glouster at the Surrender.
Sunday 21st This day the prisoners marched out those that were at Glouster went up on the other side of the river.
The Prisoners Taken are as follows
|1 Lieut Genl
1 B Genl
12 Lt Cols
20 Qr Masters
22 Do Mates
[i. e. , Surgeons Mates]
187 D & [?]
5780 R & file
1 Surgn & F Inspr
2 Ward Masters
1 Comsy of Prisoners
4 Depy Comsy Z?,7
1 Comsy Forage
2 Ast Comsy Do. [i.e. Forage]
Monday 22nd Nothing material happened this day.
Tuesday 23 This day I took a Tour of Glouster found it in a Shattered Condition & a large number of Tackf?_7 belonging to the British in short it is the most Disagreeable place I Ever was in.
Wednesday 24 A number of the Inhabitants geting their slaves Horses &c One in Particular who Dismounted Col. Tarleton & a nother took his watch from him which Tarleton had Taken when Plundering in this State.
Thursday 25th This day apart of the Army Ordered on Fatigue to rl-?_7 the trenches which was made During the Siege in the Night a very heavy rain Commencld & with a Haricaine which had like to Blow down our Tents & wrote home & Post.
Friday 26th The Rain Still Continues Untill the Evening when it Ceased.
Saturday 27th Nothing material happened this day some Officers appointd to take an Invatory of all the Stores in Town, Confiscated & others.
NB This Return is Exclusive of the Warrant Dept which adds Upwards of 1000 to the list of Prisoners — 100 Sail Square Rigged Vessels & upwards of 300 Pieces of Ordinance 80 of which are Brass During the Siege the Enemy lost 600 men kiled taken and Deserted.
Sunday 28th Nothing material this day.
Monday 29th Nothing material.
Tuesday 30th Nothing material this day.
Wednesday 31st Nothing material.
Thursday 1st Novr. Pursuant to the Determination of Board of Genl. Officers Each Officer of the American Army should be Entitled to Receive 20,9 Virginia Money in Goods from the Traders.
Friday 2nd Majr Alexander of our Brigade & Capt. Claypole was appointed to purchase for our Troops the Brigades Balloted which should be first served the Dragoons were first Pennsa 2ndly Marylanders 3dly, &c &c &c
Saturday 3d Orders for [?] our Purchases Compleated & the Officers in genl very well supply’d.
Sanday 4th No Movement Ordered to March at 8 Oclock the Next Morng.
Monday 5 March posponed untill 1 Oclock PM when we took up our line of march and Encamped at Bunills Mills — 9 Miles.
Tuesday 6th Marched at sun rise pased thru Williamsburgh Encamped at Birds Ordinary 18 Miles.
Tuesday [sic] 7 Marched at sun rise to Kent House and Encamped — 14 Miles.
Wednesday,[sic] 8 Marched at sun rise to Bottoms bridge & Encamped — 13 Miles.
Thursday,[sic] 9 Marched at sun rise & Encamped at Richmond — 15.
Friday fsic,7 loth The Maryland Brigade Crosed the River in a Tolerable Heavy rain & the Weather very cold.
Saturday [sic] 11th The Artillery Crosed this day.
Sunday [sic] 12th Lay still this day.
Monday [sic] 13th the Q. M. Genl. stores Milatary &c Crosed this day.
14th, [sic] Our Brigade Crosedthis day & Encamped above Manchester 1 mile.. The Maryland Troops Marched Previous to our Crosing to Petersburgh in order to Cross the River before our arrival also the artillery &c &c
15th Wednesday [sic] Marched at 10 Oclock AM to Ozburns Town & Encampld 12 Miles. 16th [sic] Marched at sun rise & Encamped on the Higths Oposit Petersburgh 10 Miles. 17th Friday [sic] Crosed the River in a heavy rain & Encamped on the other side Peters-
Saturday 18th [sic] Lay still this day to wash our Clothes &c Lt. Reed Cut in the arm by a horse man as the [sic] was walking the streets in the Night but the fellows made their Escape before they coud be apprehended.
Sunday [No entry]
Monday 19th Marched at sun rise and Encamped 1 mile from Diniwidie Court House 19 Miles Genl Wayne took Command of the Troops Genl St. Clair went to Taylors Ferry to have Provisions &c laid in Against our arrival.
Tuesday 20th Marched at sun rise to Earl Edmonsqps and Encamped 14 Miles. Wednesday 21st Marched to Sterling Edmonsons & Encamped 16 Miles.
Thursday 22nd Marched at sun rise to Mitchells Ordinary & Encamped 18 Miles. Myself appointed Comry to the Penna. Troops.
Friday 23 Marched at sun rise to Hugh Millers or Paton Shipper [?] farm 12 M.
Saturday 24th Marched to Taylors Ferry & our Brigade Crosed & Encamped on Col. Taylors Farm the Night rainy 10 Miles.
Sunday 25th The Artillery QMG Stores & Military stores Crosed and Encamped the later Part of the Day the rain Commenced very hard.
Monday 26th Lay still no movement.
Tuesday 27th The Maryland Troops Crosed the river and Encamped. Orders for marching at sun rise.
28th but a rain or Sleet Commenced in the night and Continued which Prevented our marching.
29 Marched at sun rise to Williamsborough and Encamped 10 Miles this place is in N. Carolinea.
30th Marched at sun rise to [blank space] & Encamped 12 Miles.
lst Decr. Marched at sun rise to Genl Par[?]ses and Encamped 13 Miles. 2nd Decr. Marched at sun rise to Pains Ordinary &
5th The snow very nearly Ceased the Troops not able to march the Tents of the Maryland line not yet come up …[top of sheet torn with loss of text] the spare amunition the snow half leg deep on a level Capt. Bartholomew got a fall from his horse yesterday and Broke his leg which obliged him to remain behind Orders to leave all our heavy Baggage all the Artillery Except twp six pdrs the Spare ammunition QMGs &c with a Number of Women & sick men also a Detachment to take care of them Under the Command of Majr Moore the Roads very bad owing to the snow melting.
Thursday 6th The Morning Rainy which prevented our Marching the land Exceeding good Orders for marching at sun rise tomorrow morning.
Friday 7th Decr. The Troops marched agreeable to Orders. Crosed the Haw River & Encamped on the Bank of the River. The Ford is Call d the High Rock the men obliged to Wade the River which took them kneehigh — 16 Miles.
Saturday 8th Decr. 81. Marched before sun rise Crosed Rockey Run & Reeda [?] Fork and Encamped at Gilford Court House. Took a Tour Round the Ground that Genl Greene and Lord Cornwallace, [sic] hadanActionOn. Found Almost Every Tree markld with Bullets & a number of Graves in and about our Encampment.
Sunday 9th Decr 81 The Troops Halted this day to Wash their Clothes but a Heivey Rain Ensued which lasted nearly the whole day which Prevented them from washing &c &c Mr. Dixon Very Ill with the Rumatick Pains.
Monday loth Decr 81 The Weather Clearld up Cold & Blustry the Ground Froze very Hard the Troops Halted this day on account of Yesterdays Rain & to het our horses Shod which were in such a Condition that they were hardly able to Travle for want of that Article.
Tuesday 11th Decr 81 The Troops Marched at sun rise to Barney Idles [?] and Encamped 15 Miles.
Wednesday 12th Decr 81 Marched at sun rise to McCrearis [?] and Encamped the roads bad 15 Miles.
Thursday 13th Decr 81 Marched at day light to the Adldn the Troops were Transported across in boats the waggons Forded about a Quarter of a mile up the River at a place callld Island Ford the water up to the Body of the waggons and Encamped on the Bank of the river 11 Miles. this is the place that Genl Greene retired across and the river rose which prevented Lord Cornwallace Crosing this river is a main Branch of the P. D —–
Friday 14th Decr 81 Marched at sun rise Pased thro Salisburgh & Encamped within one mile of the Town this Town is the largest I have seen in the state of N Carolinia.
Saturday 15th Decr 81 Marched at sun rise to Taylors and Encamped the roads much better than Usial owing to our geting into a sandy Country the Land Very good here 12 Miles.
Sunday 16 Decr 81 Marched at sun rise Crosed Rockey Run and ]Encamped the roads very good and the Land [or sand].
Monday 17th Decr 81 The Morning Rainy Halted this day to Try a Drummer of the lst Battn. for Moroading and attempting the life of an Inhabitant.
Tuesday 18th Decr 81 Marched at sun rise to Charlotte, & Encamped this Town is not so large as Salisburgh 12 Miles.
Wednesday 19th Decr 81 Marched at sun rise to Clements Run and Encamped 14 Miles a heavy rain Commenced in the Evening.
Thursday 20th Marched at sun rise to twelve Mile Creek and Encamped 10 Miles We woud have marched six Miles Farther had not the Water been [loss of one or 2 words] which rendered it impratible to Cross. Took a Tour with some officers to the Indn Towns Found one Burnt & the Houses on this side the Cataba all evacuated but there was a Town on the other Side of the River which was Inhabited by them and some were at the River which offered to take ua ttcross but having no person to take care of our horses we Refused their offer the Nation Is Callfd the Cataba — the have a grant from the State of South Carolinia for fifteen miles Square of land.
Friday 21st Marched at 2 oclock PM to the W[?] and Encamped in old Encampment where the Enemy lay five Weeks.
Saturday 22nd Marched [t] sun rise to [blank] & Encamped 10 Miles Immediately after our Marching a heavy Rain Commenced which Rendered our March very bad the roads very bad Crosed five large Creeks.
Sunday 23d Marched at sun rise took Breakfast at the Hanging Rock and Encamped Near the Flat Rock — 19 Miles saw the Remains of Men Horses Waggons &c &c &c which were Destroyed in Genl Gates Defeat at Camden this day Cloudy but no rain.
Monday 24th Decr 81 Marched at sun rise Immediately after our, Marching a Heavy Rain commenced which lasted untill 12 o’clock took a View of the Ground Genl. Gates was Defeated on found that our Troops had fired much More than the Enemy by the Marks in the Treas [sic] which I Judge must been owing to the Enemies Charging & Encamped on the Ground Where Genl. Greene had like to have been surprised in the Middle of the day when his Men were Washing their Clothes & Cooking some provisions after having been three days without any Took a Ride to Camden which was Within a Mile of the Encampmant found it in a Shattered Condition Only two Families living in the Town since all the Houses Burnt this place the Enemy had Stockaded and Fortifyod — 16 Miles.
Tuesday 25th Halted this day we spend Christmas as well as possible I had the pleasure of the Compy of Seven or Eight Officers.
Wednesday 26th Decr 81 Marched at sun rise and began to Cross the Wateree a Branch of the Santee our Brigade & the Artillery Crosed this dya. The Maryland Troops and the Spare Amunition remained on the Old Ground 4 Miles.
Thursday 27th Decr Our Brigade and the Artillery Marched at sun rise to Reynolds Mills and Encamped 9 Miles. The Maryland Troops Crosed &c & came to the same Ground the Roads very bad in places.
Friday 28th Decr 81 Our Brigade and the Artillery Marched at sun rise to the Congaree & Encamped 25 Miles the Maryland Troops Marched & Encamped seven Miles to Our Rear —
Saturday 29th Marched at sun rise began to Cross the River Our Brigade had Compleated their Crosing when the Maryland Line Arrived they Crosed and Encamped two miles on this side the River Our Brigade marched two Miles farther & Encampd’Near Col Thomsons 4 Miles.
Sunday 30th Marched at sun rise near Whatstones Mills and Encampd 14 Miles.
Monday 31st Decr 81 Marched at sun rise and Encamped Near Orrangburgh [i.e., Orangeburg] 12 Miles.
Tuesday lst Jany 1782 Marched at Sun rise and Encamped Near Williamses Farm Crosed a large Number of Branches & swamps in short nearly our whole days March was in Low Swampy Ground 20 Miles.
Wednesday 2nd Jany Marched at sun rise and Encamped within three Miles of the Saw Mills on the [blank] River & Encamped 14 Miles the Country low & swamppy as in Yesterdays March. Orders to march at sun rise tomorrow morning.
Thursday 3d Jany 82 Marched a[t] 8 Oclock Crosed the Saw Mills and in, encampt on Hickery Neck Within four Miles of Genl Greenes Army.
4th Jany Halted this day to Wash our Clothes Clean our Arms &c so as to Appear in the best Order possible Joining the Army.
5th Marched at sun Rise to Round 0 and Encampd Just in Rear of Genl Greenes.Army Which was Excedingly Weak the whole not Stronger than our Reenforcem
6th Took a Walk to see the Army found 2 thirds of them North Carolina Troops only Inlisted for a few Monthes and the Troops in Genl very ill Clothed.
7th Major Hamilton and One hundred men properly officerd order to join Col. Lawrence,
8th Jany Orders to hold our selves in rediness to March to Morrow Morning at 8 Oclock.
9th Troop beat at seven & Commencld our line of March precisly at Eight Halted and Took Breakfast at the 7 Mile Post & then proceeded on to Jacksonsburgh where we was orderd to Guard the Govener of this State who was then Seting at this place Encamped on Eddisto River 14 Miles.
Sunday l0th Moved our Encampment three or four hundred yards in the rear.
Monday 11 The troops orderd to hold themselves in rediness to March at a moment warning.
Tuesday 12th Marched at sunset Crosed Eddisto River with an intention of Supprising a party of the Enemy who were in Garrison on Johns Island but by some mistake or bad Conduct part of the Infantry mised the road which put it out of our power to Cross the River owing to the Tide Rising we halted about One hour before day and Took some sleep.
Wednesday 13 The Infantry Counter Marched about sun rise and we Immediately followed MarchedAbout two Miles when we halted and lay on our arms — had nothing to Eat but Negro Potatoes. two Pieces of Artillery was Taken down to the Water side to give a Galley who was laying between Johns Island and Us a few shot which they did but the Enemy returned so severe a fire that we was obliged to retire.
14th Lay still — got some beef no rice or salt.
15th Infantry [sic] Ordered to March down to Stones [?] Ferry and Crosed the Ferry but nothing.
16 Marched at sun rise to Col. Sker[?]ins on Pon Pon 10 Miles.
17th Lay on our arms without Tents which in Short we had left behind when we left Jacksonsburgh Continued in the Same situation untill the 24 when we got our Tents and Marched one Mile in the Rear and Encamped Col. Craigs Battn Ordered as a Guard for Govenor & Council.
From 24 to 28th Nothing happened.
28 Jany Was Mustered by Captain Bakson –Nothing to1st February.
1st Feby Nothing Material from 1st to the 11th. 12th Orders Issued to hold our selves in readiness to March at a moments Warning.
13th Feby Major Hamilton return’d from the Light infantry with his Party.
14 & 15 Nothing Extra.
16 & 17 &c &c
18th Orders to hold our solves in Rediness to March at the Shortest Notice with two days provision Col Craigs Battu Joined us but when the Alarm was found to be f also they was again Ordered to [?] Govenor & Council.
Nothing from 18th to the 27 when the assemb[l]y of this state Disolved Ensign Cunningham Aibpointed Lt.
Nothing to the 1st March —
March 1st This day Wm Dougherty Henry Witchel Jno. Newell, Danl. Stocklin of the N. C. Brigade was Executed for Desertion.
2 & 3 Nothing.
4th Genl. Greene revowd the Army this day,
5th Orders to March at 8 Oclock A M the Officers to leave all our Baggage loaded on the Waggons but did not march — a Soldier of the North Carolina* Line Drumed out of the Army — for Theft —-
6. The West [sic] Weather prevented our Marching.
7th Two hundred North Carolina Militia Joined us this day An inco4rr,7poration in Adjutation of Our line.
8th The day the inco[r]poration of Our line took place Col. Craigs Battu was Reduced a few of the Officers raturn’d to Penns&.
9th 10 11 12 & 13 Nothing.
15th A Command of two Major four Captains six subs twelve Sergts and 200 men to join Col. Lawrence.
Nothing to the 22
22 March Marched at 7 Oclock & Encamped Near Stone Church — 10 Nulax.
23 The men very busy in building hutts for them solves — in the afternoon the Army was Ordered to March at sun rise.
24 Marched at sun rise to Bacons Bridge and Encamped 10 Miles [added below this: March and].
25th The men of the Regt. very busy in Cleaning the Incampment which was very Durty and Intirely a swamp.
Nothing to 1st Apl.
2 3 & 4 Nothing material.
5th The Detachmt that was Ordered the 15th Ulte. Joined us this day.
>6th Nothing material.
7th Apl. Captain Finney & Henderson arrived this day from Penns&. Nothing to the 13th when we was reviewed by Genl. Greene
14th Lt. Carington of the Horse was Taken Prisoner this day.
From 14th to the 21st Nothing.
21 st Captain Neal of Col. Lees Legon was sent on Pat role and fell in with the Enemy who put him to flight on His retreat he lost four Men and Nine horses Sergt. Gosnell Confined on suspicion of mutiny —
22 Sergt. Gosnell was tryed and sentenced to suffer death and was Executed at 3 Oclock in the afternoon.
24th Alarmed this day Struck our Tents and Pitched them again Occasioned by a false alarm.
[torn away] Nothing.
27th Lieut Reeves arrived from Williamsborough with a party of men who was left sick at that place.
28 29 & 30 Nothing.
1 & 2 Nothing.
3d May The South Caroline& Militia Joined the Army and Encamped about a mile in front Near the Cross Roads.
Nothing to the 17th when the Militia left ther Ground and Marched for George Town.
18th Nothing materal.
[19th] A Capt. two Subs and forty men ordered on a Foraging Party.
20 & 21 Nothing Material.
2d May Went with Mr. Moore to Boons Hospital Stayed all Night with Doctor Reed.
23d Returnd to Camp.
Nothing to the 2nd June —
Nothing to the 3d July When Mr. Moore returned to Camp Orders Issued for a Review to Morrow morning at 9 Oclock.
4th The army Paraded at 5 Oclock & the artillery fired thirty four rounds the Musquettry three rounds 13 of the Canon in remembrance of the Independence of America & [loss of text here] Dolphan of France at this place we saw a Detachment of Genl. Greens Army under the Command of Genl. Sumpter — they were militia & Indians —- Orders to March to Morrow Morning at sun rise — A large Number of the militia are Toreys who have come under the Protection of Genl. Greenes Procklamation and are serving their six months — at the Expiration of which they are to become free subjects of the United States there are some Redoubts &c here which the Enemy had built When in Garrison last summer.